About Writing, Expository, Narrative

Creative Nonfiction

writingOne of the writing genres we teach in sixth grade is personal narrative. A narrative is a story, or fiction, but a personal narrative is based on a real event. The struggle is getting students to write good stories about an event in their lives.

Now personal essay, or memoir, is supposedly a different genre. It is defined as an actual memory or experience that is enhanced by imagination. Sounds the same to me.

When we remember something from our past, we tend to remember the important part, the climax, the culmination. For example, we remember opening a present and getting something we wanted, or falling off our bike, or swimming in Hawaii. In order to make that a good piece of writing, you need to add details. Who else was there? What was the weather? What happened before that led up to it? What happened afterward? What did you feel before and how did this event change it? What did people say? These details, however, are what is usually forgotten. You are left with a story like this: I went swimming in Hawaii. It was cool. Bad story.

To enhance the memory of the experience, you need to add details. If you don’t remember what the weather was like, it’s safe to assume it was warm and sunny since Hawaii is usually warm and sunny (and you’d remember swimming in the rain). If you were on vacation with your family, you can safely assume they were there with you, even if you have to make up dialogue on what they most likely said.

So where is the line between fiction (personal narrative) and nonfiction (personal essay or memoir)? Nonfiction stories serve up just the facts, like a newspaper article. And many novelists  do a lot of research into facts to help make a novel believable. Remember, too, that memories are colored by our age at the time, and they fuzz a bit over time. When I compare childhood memories with my brother, we are often amazed we are talking about the same event. Our brain already adds creativity.

You may ask, why is it important to know if the story is nonfiction or fiction if it’s a good story? One of an author’s duties is to give the reader what they expect. If a book is billed as memoir, the reader expects that everything in it actually happened. If it’s sold as fiction, the reader assumes it’s all made up. Some people are using the title ‘creative nonfiction’ to bridge this gap. In creative nonfiction, a reader can assume that historical facts are checked and still accept that some of the characters or events are made up. My own book, Under the Almond Trees, I call historical fiction because most of it is fictionalized based on very little information. What about you? Do you like your nonfiction to be factual, or are you a fan of creative nonfiction?

 

Narrative, Teaching Writing

Personal Narrative or Personal Essay?

anpencil3One of the writing genres we teach in sixth grade is the personal narrative, and that hasn’t changed with the Common Core State Standards. (Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences. W6.3) Personal narratives are defined as stories about something real that actually happened to you. Students write on topics like a special person, how they acquired a special object, the first time they rode a bike, or an important event. Everything they write about is true. It actually happened. So what’s the difference between personal narrative and personal essay?

Essay writing is also not new for Common Core. (Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content. W6.2) So if you are writing a personal essay about your life–a special person, an event, etc.–can you use the same paper you wrote for the narrative?

While both genres may have the same topic, the purpose is quite different. In a personal narrative, the writer focuses on the elements that make a good story: sensory details, character’s emotion, and a strong beginning, middle and end. A personal essay, however, focuses on personal growth. It is less about the scene and more about the reflection.

Personal essays, of course, can have great details and description, as personal narratives can show character growth. In short, a personal narrative is more about the story and a personal essay is more about the reflection. A popular topic my students write about is riding a roller coaster. Their personal narrative may go something like this:

The hot sun bounced off the pavement and wrapped my bare legs. Thank goodness for the snow cones my brother and I had just bought. 

“Let’s go on The Ripper!” he said as he finished the icy goodness.

“The Ripper?” My heart dropped. It was big. It was fast. It was scary.

“Come on, it’s just another roller coaster.”

Reluctantly I followed him to the line. Minutes passed and we creeped toward the loading platform. With each step, I had to work harder to swallow my fear. My hands were damp with sweat when they finally grasped the cold metal bar of safety that crossed my lap. 

“Wahooo!” my brother yelled as we started off.

I smiled weakly as the coaster began its click, click, click to the top of the hill. My stomach twisted. I felt like I was going to throw up, but if I did that my brother would tease me forever. The roller coaster reached the top and we had a split second to view the entire park. Then the wind snapped my hair straight out in back of me as the coaster whooshed down and around and around and around. My eyes teared up. I screamed, but with exhilaration not fear. 

The roller coaster slid to a smooth stop at the landing platform. I turned to my brother with a big smile. “Let’s go again!” 

That is a short example, but it has the elements of a personal narrative: It’s a true incident that happened to me. There’s a clear beginning, middle, and end. Sensory details and character emotion give it interest and draw the reader in. Now let’s try the same scene as a personal essay.

The sun blazed down on my brother and I as we walked around the park with our snow cones. I thought we were having a good time, but actually we were there for two very different reasons. I was there to eat grape snow cones and go on the log ride to cool off. My brother was there to bring me to the brink of terror. 

“Let’s go on The Ripper!” he said as he finished the icy goodness.

“The Ripper?” My heart dropped. It was big. It was fast. It was scary.

“Come on, it’s just another roller coaster.”

I knew better, of course. There was a reason I stayed with the slower, more reasonable rides. I didn’t like the height and speed of rides like The Ripper. But some sort of brotherly challenge in his tone made me agree. I refused to consider what we were about to do as we waited in line. Finally my sweaty hands gripped the cool metal of the safety bar, and we were ready to go. No turning back now–as if I could turn back and have any shred of dignity for the rest of my life.

The coaster clicked its way up the giant hill. Each click felt like another rock added to my stomach. At the top, the park spread out around us for an instant too quick to appreciate.Then we were rushing down and around the flips and turns. To my astonishment, I screamed in delight. What had I been afraid of? This was great! 

When we reached the end, I turned to my brother with a smile. “Let’s go again!” On the second ride, I racked my brain to remember all the huge roller coasters in every park I’d ever been to. My summer was going to be busy!

While you may have enjoyed both examples, you should be able to see that the second one showed more reflection on the part of the narrator. So could a student turn in either example for a personal narrative? At the sixth grade level, of course.